The prostate is an essential part of a male’s reproductive system. Any maladies impacting the prostate have a negative effect on the patient’s overall well-being and lifestyle.
The most serious health issues originating in the prostate are prostate cancer, BPH, acute prostatitis, and long-term prostatitis.
Roughly 75% of men develop BPH by 70. In most men over the age of 80, there is a presence of prostate cancer that is related to glands.
Early treatment of cancer is more manageable. Prostate cancer can increase the PSA level. But, many benign ailments can also affect the PSA.
The appropriate PSA reading for males of sixty years of age should lie between 1.0 and 1.5 ng/ml. The greater the PSA level, the more likely it is that prostate cancer is present and active.
We will delve deeper into the variables that impact the PSA and the most effective ways to control it.
Then, we will explore what type of eating plan would be most effective in reducing your PSA readings.
What is PSA?
The prostate gland produces a protein called PSA, which can be made by both healthy and cancerous cells. A Prostate Specific Antigen exam is available to determine the quantity of Prostate Specific Antigen in a person’s blood. The PSA levels in the blood are demonstrated in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).
Prostate Cancer Incidence
Men suffer from prostate cancer more often than almost any other type of cancer, making it the second most regularly seen malignancy. Cancer is more common among male individuals that are over 50 years of age. Approximately 11 percent of males will be identified with prostate cancer at some point in their lives. Approximately 191,930 incidences and 33,330 fatalities due to prostate cancer were envisioned by the American Cancer Society inside the nation for 2020.
Many cases of prostate cancer grow at a slow rate, meaning patients may not be aware they have the disease. The disease can extend outside of the prostate, impacting areas such as the bones, lungs, brain, and liver. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood can be measured for the recognition of possible issues at an early stage. Cures for prostate cancer are more likely when the disease is diagnosed in its beginning stages.
Various methods of managing prostate cancer are obtainable, such as surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, focusing therapeutic treatment and cryotherapy. The choice of management for prostate cancer is based on elements like the cancer’s stage, grade, age, expected lifespan, and any other health concerns.
Normal PSA Levels by Age
The PSA test results vary over time, which is referred to as PSA velocity. Professionals in the medical field will examine both the size of the prostate gland and the age of the man when working out the present PSA rating. Overall:
- For males in their 40s-50s: Their median PSA level ranges between 0.6 to 0.7 ng/ml. A high PSA viewed as abnormal is one over 2.5 ng/ml. This is what we call a high PSA level.
- For males in their 60s: Normal PSA level varies from 1.0 and 1.5 ng/ml. While the 4.0 ng/ml is a high PSA for this age group.
- PSA test abnormalities: If the PSA elevation goes up a certain amount in one year, it can be a sign of abnormality. For instance, an elevated PSA level of 0.35 ng/ml in 1 year is considered abnormal and requires further testing.
A poll taken in 2018 showed that nearly 40% of males aged 55-69 had a PSA test within the previous 365 days. A PSA test could be utilized to detect cancer when it is still in its beginning stages.
It takes time for certain prostate cancers to develop. Others don’t even spread further than the prostate gland. That’s when active surveillance may help.
In cases that are more severe, a Gleason score of 8 or higher and a PSA of above 20 ng/ml is a strong indication that the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage. For individuals facing a high risk for prostate issues, the appearance of their prostate tissue varies drastically from that of a healthy prostate.
What Could Cause High PSA Levels?
Before addressing ways to reduce the PSA score, it is essential to identify causes for the current total PSA. Aside from cancer, conditions such as an enlarged prostate and prostatitis (inflamed or infected prostate) can cause an increase in the PSA level.
The levels of PSA increase with age, sexual activity, and if you have a urinary tract infection. An impact or fall that causes an injury to the prostate can temporarily increase PSA levels. It is possible that elevated PSA levels may have been brought on by parathyroid hormone or the result of having undergone a surgical procedure.
When damage occurs to the prostate gland, a PSA blood test will show a higher-than-normal value. It is recommended that patients should wait for 2 to 3 weeks to conduct another PSA checkup since it takes approximately 2 to 3 days for PSA levels to decrease by half. These are all components that can distort the results of a PSA exam.
A PSA test alone cannot give a complete picture of the condition of your prostate. A medical professional will consider your PSA test result in combination with other factors. Such as a digital rectal examination, genetic factors, and age factors, and so forth.
If an abnormal PSA result is backed up by a rectal examination during diagnosis, then the doctor may suggest a prostate biopsy.
This is to verify the presence of prostate cancer. It is evident that the increased PSA levels may indicate a variety of things. Cancer is just one of them.
When a physician suspects cancer, they will advise taking a cancer screening to check for the condition. Experts claim a PSA test may be advantageous, but there is potential for it to give incorrect results. Some folks with cancer usually have a standard level of PSA.
Research demonstrates that fifteen percent of elderly male patients with a normal PSA score have prostate cancer. This can pose a challenge for those who have taken a PSA test.
It would be beneficial for you to consult a specialist if your PSA test results show an increased level of PSA.
Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer that is found in its early stages could possibly be symptom-free. According to the American Cancer Society, advanced prostate cancers may lead to certain symptoms such as:
- Problem in urinating, increased frequency of urination, especially at night.
- Blood in the urine or semen.
- Erectile dysfunction.
- Pain in the back (spine), hips, chest (ribs), or other areas when the cancer has spread to the bones.
- Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet.
- Loss of bladder or bowel control if the cancer presses the spinal cord.
The most common risk factors of Prostate cancer include:
- Age: 6 out of 10 prostate cancer cases are found in men older than 65.
- Family History
- Genetic Risk: Inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes; Lynch syndrome- also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, a condition caused by inherited gene changes
- Exposure to chemicals
- Inflammation of Prostate
- Sexually Transmitted Infections
- Unhealthy diet
Eating a nutritious and balanced meal that supplies the required nourishment is crucial to prevent prostate cancer and reducing symptoms, as well as strengthening and better cancer treatment results. Good nutrition gives patients the energy to manage treatment, get the best results from therapies, and enhance their quality of life. This blog seeks to study the connections between various foods, dietary supplements, and prostate cancer risk and treatment success.
6 Foods to Reduce the Risk of Prostate Cancer
1. Cooked Tomatoes
A research study from 2020 investigated whether a diet that includes tomatoes and lycopene can reduce the likelihood of prostate cancer, utilizing data for 27,934 men from the Adventist Health Study-2 who had no existing cancers by scientists from the Loma Linda University in California and the Arctic University of Norway. Over the span of an average 7.9-year period, 1226 new instances of prostate cancer (of which 355 were classified as ‘aggressive’ cancers) were documented. The research showed that eating canned and prepared tomatoes could possibly decrease the likelihood of prostate cancer.
2. Lycopene Supplements
Lycopene is the key active compound found in tomatoes. Researchers from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, China, evaluated the association between lycopene consumption and the risk of Prostate Cancer based on data from 26 studies, with 17,517 prostate cancer cases from 563,299 participants, obtained through a literature search in Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases, and manual search till April 10, 2014. Research determined that the more lycopene one consumes, the less likely they are to get prostate cancer. The relationship between the two was observed to be linear, and it was determined that the minimum daily intake to have any effect should be between 9 and 21 mg.
Researchers from universities in Japan and the United States conducted a study to examine if there was a relationship between eating mushrooms and developing prostate cancer. The research was based on dietary information from two surveys, the Miyagi and Ohsaki Cohorts, involving 36,499 male participants aged between 40-79. Over the course of 13.2 years, a total of 1204 cases of prostate cancer were identified.
The research uncovered that participants who ate 1 to 2 portions of mushrooms every week were related to an 8% lower hazard of prostate cancer, and those who had at least 3 servings each week were attached to a 17% lower danger of prostate cancer contrasted with those consuming mushrooms less than one time per week. The strongest relationship for this was seen in older Japanese males.
Researchers at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital in China conducted a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane register, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, culminating in May 2013. After analyzing dietary data from six case-control and three cohort studies, they ascertained that garlic consumption was related to a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but onion intake had no considerable influence.
In a further study, the Chinese and American scholars investigated the connection between the ingestion of allium vegetables (which include garlic, scallions, onions, chives, and leeks) and the likelihood of prostate cancer. They collected the data from on-site interviews with 238 people with prostate cancer and 471 men without prostate cancer to get information on 122 distinct food items. The research discovered that men who ate more than 10.0 g of allium vegetables per day had a reduced likelihood of prostate cancer when compared to those who consumed less than 2.2 g of the same food each day. They pointed out that the risk was greatly lowered by consuming the greatest amounts of garlic and scallions.
5. Whole Grains
In 2012, a survey was published analyzing the food habits of 930 African Americans and 993 European Americans from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP Study). The results indicated that consuming whole grains might be linked to a diminished risk of prostate cancer in both African Americans and European Americans.
A study conducted by scholars from Wenzhou Medical University and Zhejiang University in China carried out a meta-analysis of data acquired from 10 different sources. This data included 8 population-based and cohort studies using information from close to 300,000 people, with 10,234 incident cases, that was collected by utilizing the PubMed and Web of Science databases up to June of 2016. It was determined that every additional 20 grams of legume consumed each day corresponded with a 3.7% decreased likelihood of having prostate cancer.
5 Foods to Avoid
The ingredients contained in the food consumed can have an effect on prostate health. However, there is a lack of studies and associated data on the relationship between all goods and their consequences on serum prostate and PSA levels.
Certain consumables are known to increase cancer risk. Such as:
1. Red and processed meats
Some studies demonstrate that eating a lot of meat that has been cooked thoroughly may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
It is possible that the substances capable of causing cancer found in cooked meat have caused this, particularly in products such as sausage, pork, and beef.
2. Refined carbs
People who eat a lot of processed carbs may raise their odds of getting prostate cancer.
Alcohol is a known carcinogen. But, there hasn’t been a sufficient study to determine if it has an effect on prostate cells.
Recent studies suggest that individuals who drink large amounts of alcohol have lower levels of PSA. It appears that high alcohol consumption may be a marker to distinguish those individuals who could have cancer but may go undiagnosed.
Limiting dairy consumption can benefit the prostate gland. It appears that the reduced-fat and no-fat types are beneficial for treating and managing prostate and prostate cancer.
5. Saturated fats
The potential dangers of this form of fat have been studied, and there is an increased chance of dying from prostate cancer. It is advisable to steer clear of it prior to or after a prostate cancer examination.
Having a good prostate health score on a PSA test is determined by eating nutritious food and engaging in physical activity. This can be the basis of your approach when attempting to maintain an appropriate PSA result for your subsequent cancer screening.
If you’re deficient in any vitamins before a check-up, taking supplements may be beneficial. Discuss the changes with a specialist before you implement them. It is important to take note that certain dietary supplements may react or interact with certain medications.
It is advisable to have a conversation with your physician before you are given a prostate cancer diagnosis. Do you need to determine if you require a prostate cancer examination?