Signs and Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

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An increase in the size of the prostate gland which is not cancerous, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is the most prevalent benign growth observed in males.

It can be observed that compared to Eastern countries such as Japan and China, prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are more prevalent in the West, with BPH appearing to be more prevalent amongst people of African descent. Recently, a study brought to light a potential genetic factor of BPH in men under the age of 65 who have an enlarged prostate: Not only were their male relatives four times more likely than other men to require BPH surgery at some point, but the risk of such a need was even greater for their brothers, being six times higher.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) blocks the passage of urine in the urethra, leading to symptoms. Approximately 25 percent of men aged 55 have indications of BPH, and half of men aged 75 experience this. However, treatment is only necessary if symptoms become bothersome. At least one fifth to three tenths of males develop signs of BPH by the time they are eighty that are serious enough to need medical attention. Until recently, surgery was the sole recourse for treating prostate problems, but now, minimally invasive treatments which open the prostatic urethra and prescription medications that can reduce symptoms, either by shrinking the prostate or relaxing the muscle tissue squeezing the urethra, have been approved.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms Of BPH?

It is essential for men to be aware of indications of prostate enlargement prior to them having to endure the urinary issues related to the condition.

If the signs are identified in a timely manner and the proper steps are taken, the individual can get the correct care to prevent the condition from getting worse.

Missing these signs and symptoms might result in grave implications.

Some common symptoms that men tend to experience when they develop benign prostatic hyperplasia include:

  • There may be an urge to urinate often. (frequent urination).
  • Urination becomes much more frequent as the prostate continues to swell up.
  • Nighttime urination causes sleep disturbances.
  • The urine stream tends to become weak due to the obstruction in the urethra.
  • The urine stream may also be frequently interrupted during urination.
  • Urine may leak after the man has urinated.
  • Initiating a urine stream can feel difficult and uncomfortable.

When these symptoms persist, and the patient fails to obtain the right treatment for the condition, benign prostatic hyperplasia may lead to some of the following complications and more serious symptoms:

  • Urine control may be completely lost.
  • There may be damage done to the bladder.
  • The kidneys may become damaged due to infection, caused by an obstruction in urine flow.
  • Frequently affected by urinary tract infections.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Bladder stones may develop when all urine is not removed during urination.
  • Some patients may find that there is blood in their urine.

What Are the Risk Factors For BPH?

Any individual can be afflicted with benign prostatic hyperplasia, regardless of gender.

According to doctors, they have found that certain groups are more prone to developing this illness.

It is important for men to be aware of the potential dangers related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Certain hazards cannot be managed – for instance, one’s gender, of course. Conversely, some risk factors can be controlled. If specific methods are employed to decrease the danger aspects, the chances of the man getting an enlarged prostate become slim.

We investigate some of the primary risk factors that seem to affect a man’s probability of getting the ailment mentioned.

Genetic profile

Genes are critical to a variety of aspects within the human body and throughout a person’s lifetime.

Many of these genes will be set at birth. There is a possibility that certain genes can make an individual more likely to contract certain illnesses.

If a man has a family history of this condition, he may have an increased likelihood of developing it.

Investigations have indicated that having relatives who have previously been diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a critical factor in assessing how likely an individual is to experience this disorder.

Physical inactivity

Exercise is necessary for keeping the human body healthy and ensuring that all its systems function properly.

Unfortunately, a sizable portion of the world’s population does not participate in physical activity. If someone fails to get sufficient physical activity and does not stay active on a regular basis, they are typically regarded as living a sedentary lifestyle.

There are several risks associated with inadequate physical activity. Males are more predisposed to numerous types of cancer and are more likely to be obese, have diabetes, and have heart disease.

Male patients that are of an older age group should strive to remain active, as inactivity should be prevented.

A Harvard Medical School report states that recent studies have revealed that individuals who lead sedentary lifestyles are far more prone to developing benign prostatic hyperplasia.

It is not necessary to put too much effort into the bench press or running on a treadmill to remain active. Going for a brisk stroll daily could result in a considerable income increase.

Obesity and excess weight

It is important to take into account the weight of the person when assessing the risks of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

People who have a normal and healthy bodyweight are less prone to get the condition that heavier individuals may have.

The direct connection between obesity and BPH is thought to be because of the raised estrogen levels that come with being overweight.

Estrogen is a type of hormone. The hormone typically viewed as the most important one for sexual functioning in males is present in their bodies. Although males have some estrogen in their bodies, it is only a slight amount.

There is evidence suggesting a connection between enhanced levels of estrogen and expanded prostate growth. When someone is overweight, their raised estrogen levels can lead to their prostate gland growing at an increased rate. This can result in the formation of a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate.

Moreover, being overweight puts an individual in danger of having metabolic syndrome. This phrase covers a large group of ailments, among them being diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome has been found to be associated with an enlargement of the prostate gland.


It’s important to take diabetes into account when assessing the possibility of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Diabetes affects how cells in the body respond to insulin. They are likely to be less responsive to insulin circulating in the bloodstream. The cells will not take in the sugar that is in the bloodstream.

In a single investigation, scientists indicated that there appears to be a significant connection between diabetes and an enlarged prostate.

Changes in blood sugar levels may have the potential to lead to adverse effects. If the blood sugar level rises beyond a certain limit, it causes additional insulin to be secreted.

Data shows that when people with diabetes have a heightened level of inulin, it can be a prompt for prostate cells to start multiplying quickly.

When this event occurs, the prostate will enlarge and the person has the potential of being diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia, along with other medical conditions associated with diabetes.

Treatment Options for BPH

Watchful Waiting

A policy of observation is the most suitable approach for sufferers of BPH with only minor, non-intrusive symptoms as there is no set outcome or degree of complexity for this condition. In other words, no immediate treatment is required. Once a year, it is important to have a medical appointment with a doctor to evaluate the status of the ailment, and do a physical examination and several basic lab tests. The man should be wary of tranquilizers and decongestant-containing OTC remedies for colds and sinus issues while in wait-and-see mode. These drugs can worsen obstructive symptoms. Avoiding fluids at night may lessen nocturia.


Further research is required regarding the long-term effects of medical treatments, including their potential advantages and drawbacks. At present, two medicinal agents – 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and alpha-adrenergic blockers – are employed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. Early studies point to 30-60% of men experiencing symptom improvement through the use of these medications, though there is no way of determining who will get the most benefit from medical treatment or which medication will be ideal for a given patient.

5-Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors

Finasteride (Proscar) keeps testosterone from being changed over to dihydrotestosterone, which is the predominant hormone in males found in the cells of the prostate. For certain guys, finasteride can reduce symptoms of BPH, amplify the rate of urine flow and decrease the size of the prostate, though it needs to be employed over the long term to stop symptoms from returning. It could take half a year or more to realize the best possible outcome.

In a study of its safety and effectiveness, two-thirds of the men taking finasteride experienced:

At least a 20% shrinkage in the size of the prostate (despite the fact that only roughly half of patients had achieved that degree of lowering at the one-year mark) was seen in around a third of the patients, with two-thirds of them noticing some alleviation of symptoms.

Finasteride has been observed to decrease PSA levels by nearly half, however, it is not believed to restrict the value of using PSA as a tool to screen for prostate cancer. When someone stops taking finasteride, the decrease of PSA levels as well as any development of sexual issues will cease.

Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers

These agents, initially intended to manage high blood pressure, decrease the strain on the smooth muscles in the walls of capillaries and unwind inviscid muscle tissue in the prostate. Due to this, taking an alpha-adrenergic medication every day may improve the amount of urine released and ease symptoms such as the urge to use the bathroom frequently and having to wake up during the night to urinate.

The benefit of taking alpha blockers rather than finasteride is that they produce quick results. The extra advantage of medications for BPH is that they are efficient for treating hypertension in patients with this condition. The effectiveness of terazosin compared to finasteride may depend more on the size of the prostate. A study in The New England Journal of Medicine showed that terazosin seemed to provide more alleviation of BPH signs and urinary flow rate when compared to finasteride. This variation could have been the result of the massive amount of males in the research with small prostates, causing them to be more probable to display BPH indications from the constriction of smooth muscles instead of obstruction from an overflow of glandular cells. The effects of Doxazosin were looked into through three trials which included 337 males with BPH. Patients received either a fake treatment or a daily dosage of between 4 and 12 mg of doxazosin. The active drug demonstrated 40% more effectiveness than the placebo in easing urinary symptoms and caused an average rise in urinary peak flow of 2.2 ml/s, while the placebo only caused an average increase of 0.9 ml/s.

Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors

Drugs such as Cialis, which are called phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, are widely taken to treat erectile dysfunction. Utilized on a regular basis, they may also cause the prostate smooth muscle to relax and moderate the bladder muscle when it is in an overactive state. Research has shown that when Cialis is used on a daily basis, it can cause a decrease of four to five points in the International Prostate Symptom Score, in comparison to taking a placebo. Additionally, Cialis is more effective than a placebo at reducing occurrences of urinary frequency, urgency, and urinary incontinence. Investigations that investigate the effect of Cialis on urine production, however, have not produced notable improvement.


The obstructing adenoma of the prostate can be moved or taken away surgically as a form of treatment. Traditionally, surgical treatments have been held back for males who have not responded to medicinal remedies and those who have experienced sterile viability issues on account of BPH, constant urinary tract diseases, bladder stones, or draining originating from the prostate. A lot of men, however, do not take their prescribed medical therapy correctly as they experience side effects. Surgery may be an option to these men to stop their bladder function from getting worse in the future.

Presently available surgical techniques include monopolar and bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), robotic simple prostatectomy (retropubic, suprapubic, and laparoscopic), transurethral incision of the prostate, bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TUVP), photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), prostatic urethral lifting (PUL), transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT) for thermal ablation, water vapor thermal therapy, transurethral needle ablation of the prostate (TUNA), and enucleation using holmium (HoLEP) or thulium (ThuLEP) laser.

Thermal Treatments

Thermal treatments help to reduce symptoms by using radiating heat taken from an advanced radio frequency device. TUNA of the prostate utilizes small doses of radiation broadcasted from miniature needles at the end of a catheter to warm up prostatic tissue. A six-month trial involving 12 individuals of ages 56 to 76 who suffered from BPH showed the treatment is capable of diminishing AUA Symptom Index scores by a magnitude of 61%, and that it produces small side effects (ranging from slight pain or problems with peeing that can last a maximum of one to seven days). Retrograde ejaculation occurred in one patient. The alternate to surgical treatment for people with bladder flow restriction caused by an enlarged prostate is transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), a minimally invasive solution. TUMT is conducted as an outpatient procedure, with the patient receiving local anesthesia. Heat from microwave energy that is transmitted from a urethral catheter breaks down prostatic tissue.

Water vapor thermal therapy, also known as Rezum, is a modern form of treatment that uses warmth to transmute into steam, in order to cause destruction of cells in the prostate. Investigations that inspected the prostate magnitude six months after vaporized steam remedy showed a 29% decrease in prostate size by MRI.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia usually isn’t thought of as a dangerous problem, but in certain cases, men may face problems that could be life-threatening.

It is important for all men to be aware of the potential causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia in order for them to determine if they are at risk for developing an enlarged prostate.

This would guarantee that the patient be able to recognize signs when the condition is still in its early stages and be able to receive treatment in order to control the enlargement of the prostate.


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